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Enhanced performance! 
Remapping is intended to make the most of your car by overwriting the ECUs default settings with new software which can be programmed to enhance the car's overall performance.
Vehicle remapping is done by software recalibrating of Engine Control Unit - ECU      

Engine Control Unit
Modern vehicle engines are controlled by a computer known as the Engine Control Unit (ECU).  This tiny computer controls aspects of the engine such as ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, injection time, lambda value, boost pressure ect.. By adjusting these settings the vehicle can be altered to increase either performance and economy.

Remapping(chiptunig) is when third party software is installed onto the ECU to replace the manufacturer’s software. This new software have customised settings to get the most out of the engine and can be tailored to each specific vehicle. Many types of adjustments and optimizations can be made depending on the use of the vehicle

It is usually installed by connecting a pc to the vehicle’s OBD serial port. Older vehicles had to have their engine’s computer chip completely removed and replace with a new chip whit new software. This is why it used to be called chiptuning.

What effects can a remap have?
By recalibrating of the ECU software, the engine can perform a lot closer to its own maximum capabilities - often by increasing horsepower and torque by 30% or more! Most vehicles have their performance intentionally dialled down when they leave the factory for a multitude of reasons. Often this can be to meet emissions regulations, noise regulations and fuel quality.

Additionally, vehicles always come with a warranty, and the last thing the manufacturer wants is to have to rebuild or replace damaged engines. For this reason and others, performance is always kept well within 70-80% of the engine's capabilities. For example, the engines of the Audi A6 C7 of 204 hp. up to 326 hp are the same.
Most manufacturers release several different versions of the same car model, and by adjusting the ECU settings they can quickly and easily increase the car's performance figures, making them more desirable without the need for major engine changes. In this way, the same engine is used with different peripherals such as: turbo, intake manifold, intercooler, injectors etc.. The end result is a more powerful engine at a much higher price

Is a remap just a software change?
Is often called Stage 1 - Stage 2 - Stage 3  tuning.
The differences between them are:
Stage 1 is just a simple ECU software change. 
Stage 2 includes software changes as well as additional changes to the vehicle's hardware, such as a exhaust system, intake manifold and high-pressure fuel pump. 
Stages 3, Stage 4 includes upgrading the vehicle’s turbocharger or supercharger, engine modification, clutch, cooling, intake, exhaust.

Is remapping dangerous or harmful to the engine?
Changing the settings on which the engine management depends can have a harmful effect, this depends on how the car software is made and configured. With well-made software, there are no harmful effects on the engine and its reliability

What cars can be tuned?
Remapping can increase both performance and economy in most types of vehicles. Even a car with a 1 litre engine can receive good power gains from a remap.

Most modern cars these days have a turbocharger or supercharger, an engine works by mixing compressed fuel with air and then igniting this mix inside its cylinders. Turbochargers and superchargers increase the fuel compression therefore allowing more fuel to fit inside the cylinders before igniting. 
More fuel and more air equals more power. It is more fuel efficient to increase power this way rather than just having a larger engine to begin with, emissions tend to be much lower too. This is why we are seeing more 3, 4 and 6 cylinder engines and fewer 8, 10 and 12 cylinder engines.

Will my economy increase as well as performance?
Fuel consumption with Stage 1 and Eco tuning will be lower but all depends on how you drive. Many remapped engines are able to achieve greater economy and may even be more efficient with recalibrated software. In general, everything depends on the programming of power during acceleration, precisely for this reason there is a reduction in fuel consumption. At the same time, if you keep the engine always in the red zone of revolutions, you will not get a reduction, on the contrary, you will have an increase in fuel consumption.

Will I need to use a higher grade fuel with my remap?
Not necessarily
It all depends on the type of map you have installed. Usually, you will safely be able to use the same fuel as before. If the particular modification is made for a specific type of fuel then it is recommended to run only that type of fuel, ie 99 RON Octane in petrol cars or 55 CN Cetane in diesel cars, which means the car will perform to its optimum if you stick with that exact fuel grade. Damage will rarely be done to the vehicle if you use a lower grade fuel, but it will often result in poorer performance even more than before the remap was installed.

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